The evaluation

The evaluation is seen by teachers and students, as a synonym to qualify. So highlight studies teachers spontaneous conceptions (Gil et al 1991; Alonso Gil-Torregrosa Mtnez 1992a and 1995a) or the analysis of the evaluation method (Hodson 1986; Colombo, Pesa and Salinas 1986; Alonso, Gil and Mtnez-Torregrosa 1991 and 1992b; Lorbasch et al 1992, Alonso 1994), then, for teachers, the evaluation is to measure the student’s ability to assign a score to base objective (?) to promote and select [7]
Testing, examination or review results and awarding a number or note, is to qualify the performance. Objective tests, compare results and collect data to make decisions, is measured. For many teachers, assessment is testing, examinations and award qualifications apply [8]
With Alvarez Mendez agree that you should use the words accurately. Assessment is not measured or qualify, or less correct, sort, examine, or apply tests. Evaluation includes activities to qualify, measure, edit, sort, certify, examine, but not identical with them, transcends. Share a semantic field, but differ in the resources they use and purposes they serve. The evaluation begins where they end, there is the presence of subjects [9] to evaluate the whole context to improve and whoever does not evaluate, no mistakes will identify opportunities or opportunities for improvement. Miguel Angel Santos Guerra regards evaluation as a process of dialogue, understanding and improvement.
Educational evaluation concept and features
The evaluation is present in our daily lives and events of different order, is a reflection and review of everything we do, an analysis … for making decisions [10]
According to some, the concept of evaluation appears nineteenth century industrialization, beginning the educational discourse in terms of educational technology, curriculum, learning objectives and educational evaluation. According to others, comes at the beginning of society, he always sought to give value judgments to actions. Evaluation as a discipline suffered conceptual and functional changes in the XX and XXI century.
Ralph Tyler (1902-1994), father of “educational evaluation” proposed vision called “methodical” (?), Presenting it as a tool to improve the quality of education. In 1949 the curriculum desgrrándola reduced to personal skills; ignored personal learning and became a means to determine the degree of compliance with the curriculum. Tests used to measure progress and acquisition of curricular objectives. Exerted influence after the Second World War, as his model was fairly widespread, criticized and rejected by other approaches. Its design can sucintarse in:
a. To evaluate is to compare the achievements of the students and the objectives set by determining to what extent were achieved.
b. Applying this model assumes:
a) List and sequence aims.
b) Establish controls to obtain information on student outcomes, so observable.
c) Compare results with objectives.
d) Accept or reject as values or standards [11]
The literature review shows the following periods:
a. Pre-Tylerian. The oldest, dating from about 2000 BC Guba and Lincoln (1989) consider that begins at the end of the last century, being still in force
b. Tylerian. By 1930, Tyler presented his vision of curriculum, assessment, technology curriculum planning, content selection and organization, strategies to convey information and evaluate the objectives.
c. Period of “innocence”. In late 1940 and early 1950, the United States demonstrates the expansion of educational offerings, increasing teacher assessment (Rama, 1989). Prevails performance measurement proposed by Tyler.
d. Realism. By evaluating 60 professionalized in the U.S. and poses develop new projects to develop the curriculum in science and mathematics. Cronbach reconceptualize assessment recommended “as a process of collecting and formalizing information that can help those who design curricula” (Rama, 1989).
e. Professionalism. In the 70s, the boom as a profession evaluation takes research linking and control (Rama, 1989, Gonzalez and Ayarza, 1997).
f. Self. In recent decades, Latin America saw the need to promote academic quality, considering that all educational efforts (including assessment) should seek cognitive growth and personal development of all participants in the process of teaching / learning (Hernandez, 1998) [ 12].

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